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Americana Chen
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Current Concerns Regarding Blockchain’s Energy Consumption

One of the biggest criticisms of blockchain technology is that the process of mining and proof of work requires large amounts of computation power, which consumes enormous electricity. The university of Cambridge has developed a live Bitcoin network power, and according to its historical records, Bitcoin’s energy consumption rose from 4TWh annually at the end of 2015 to 90TWh per annually today ( at the end of 2020). Large investments are poured into building up mining pools in countries with low cost of electricity, mainly in China and India. Back in 2019, when the annual energy consumption of bitcoin was…


2020 was a decisive year for businesses as they faced worldwide lockdowns and restrictions on operations — countless businesses have not been able to withstand pressure from the pandemic.

Government, consumers, and society as a whole have become more aware of sustainability issues, and this could be a critical turning point for businesses. Whether or not businesses could adapt themselves to this “New Normal” and stand up to ESG expectations from various stakeholders determines their position in the competitive market in the upcoming decade.

Businesses sit at the core of economic growth. Although consumer behavior is also a determining factor…


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Nowadays, we hear about SUSTAINABILITY everywhere, everyday, on every news headline. But how do we define the scope of sustainability? After listening to the sustainability summit , I suggest that a crucial component of the definition would be ‘interconnectivity’.

In its essence, sustainability concerns the interaction between “us” and “the environment”, and the characteristics of ‘interconnectivity’ are embedded in both of them.

What defines the “the environment”?

When talking about sustainability and climate change, what is the first thing that comes to your mind?

In recent years, elites around the globe have come to realize that climate change is an urgent issue that we need…


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Sustainable Transformation: An urgent transformation that businesses should prioritize

Sustainable transformation is not a new topic, we have come to realize the problem of climate change since the 19th Century, when we first identified the impact of natural greenhouse effect. However, it wasn’t until recent years that we saw an unprecedented increase in pressure towards businesses in leading the sustainable transformation. Investors are becoming increasingly focused on ESG metrics and impact investing; consumers are adopting a more sustainable lifestyle and changing their consumption patterns; government and international organizations have been constantly reviewing and putting tighter regulatory constraints on businesses’ environmental impacts.


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Beginner’s guide for beginners

A typical path for data scientists is to go from exploratory data analysis to machine learning, to deep learning and then to reinforcement learning, just like the structure of machine learning courses like the famous Andrew Ng ‘Machine Learning’ course. Going from machine learning to deep learning is often more intuitive, however, when proceeding to reinforcement learning problems it could be more confusing. Concepts such as Markov Decision Process, Reward Functions, Bellman Equation seems to be in a different universe. Going through this learning process myself, I found that going through an example and practical implementation of reinforcement learning model…


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***This article follows from one of my previous article “Unleash the Potential of AI in Circular Economy: Businesses Potentials”, where I introduced the concept of a circular economy, discussed why this urgent transformation is needed, and how Artificial intelligence could be used by businesses to promote this evolution. If you haven’t looked at it I suggest you to have a read at the business implications first. ***

In the previous article I’ve explored how Artificial intelligence could be a powerful tool in facilitating business’ transformation from a linear operation model to a circular operation model, including supply chain management, inventory…


A review on MIT Open Courseware — 6.0001: Introduction to Computer Science and Programming in Python (with my notes shared)

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As an ambitious beginner data scientist, it is very common to start your journey in data science by looking up online courses on data analysis. If you search for data science courses on platforms such as Edx, Coursera, they cover a wide variety of skills for every level of expertise, ranging from data wrangling to exploratory data analysis, to model building and machine learning. …


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1. A brief introduction to Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)

As the focus of this article is to explore the current landscape of Central Bank Digital Currencies, this will only be a short and general explanation of what is CBDC.

In short, CBDC is a digital variation of Central Bank Issued Currency that differentiate itself from traditional physical form of central bank issued money. It can be further broken down into two main categories: ‘wholesale’ CBDC, which is a restricted-access digital token for wholesale settlements, and general purpose CBDC, which will be available to the general public.


A visualized tour into the world of the top 50 Blockchain Companies in 2020

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Blockchain Technologies had seen rapid growth in 2020, the size of the Blockchain Technology market worldwide expanded from 1.2 billion USD in 2018 to 3 billion USD in 2020. It is expected to see further growth at Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 67.3%, soaring to 39.7 billion USD in 2025, opening a brand new era for technological innovation.

Despite ongoing skepticism around whether this technology is really worth investing, many leading businesses across various industries are exploring innovative applications of Blockchain Technologies to capitalize its…

Americana Chen

University College London -> BSc Economics and Statistics / Focus: data science, finance, economics, fintech, sustainability/ Linkedin: @Americana Chen

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